Microwave Link Planning


Microwave Link Planning

microwave link planning

    microwave link

  • Wireless way of sending signals from one transmitter to another, linking caller with recipient.  Alternative is to receive call from cellphone then send it down wires either fibre optic/coaxial/copper wire rout to another cellsite then to receiver.
  • Microwave transmission refers to the technology of transmitting information by the use of the radio waves whose wavelengths are conveniently measured in small numbers of centimeters, by using various electronic technologies. These are called microwaves.


  • The process of making plans for something
  • The control of urban development by a local government authority, from which a license must be obtained to build a new property or change an existing one
  • (plan) A debtor's detailed description of how the debtor proposes to pay creditors' claims over a fixed period of time.
  • (Plan) This shows the ground plan design, elevation of house, number and size of rooms, kitchen, bathrooms, laundry layout and position of the house on the land.
  • (401(K)plan) A qualified profit-sharing or thrift plan that allows eligible employees the option of putting moneyinto the plan or receiving the funds as cash.

microwave link planning – ANALYSIS AND

Wireless communication is observing a fast development in today?s communication area. In mobile communication the Base Transceiver Station (BTS) to Base Station Controller (BSC) or Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) link is based on microwave link. Therefore, analysis and planning of a microwave link is very much important. The microwave equipment can be installed after a careful planning and detailed analysis a microwave radio system. A poorly designed path can result in periodic system outages, resulting in increased system latency, decreased throughput, or worst case, a complete failure of the system. Planning a good, stable and reliable microwave network can be quite challenging. At the same time, it poses several interesting optimization problems. The theme of thesis work an iterative technique has been presented to explain the sequential communication of signal transmission for long and short distance radio communication through microwave link with better efficiency.


Meat is animal flesh that is used as food. Most often, this means the skeletal muscle and associated fat, but it may also describe other edible tissues such as organs, livers, skin, brains, bone marrow, kidneys, or lungs. The word meat is also used by the meat packing industry in a more restrictive sense—the flesh of mammalian species (pigs, cattle, lambs, etc.) raised and prepared for human consumption, to the exclusion of fish and poultry.

The word meat comes from the Old English word mete, which referred to food in general. The term is related to mad in Danish, mat in Swedish and Norwegian, and matur in Icelandic, which also mean ‘food’. The word "mete" also exists in Old Frisian (and to a lesser extent, modern West Frisian) to denote important food, differentiating it from "swiets" (sweets) and "dierfied" (animal feed).

One definition that refers to meat as not including fish developed over the past few hundred years and has religious influences. The distinction between fish and "meat" is codified by the Jewish dietary law of kashrut, regarding the mixing of milk and meat, which does not forbid the mixing of milk and fish. Modern Jewish legal practice (halakha) on kashrut classifies the flesh of both mammals and birds as "meat"; fish are considered to be parve, neither meat nor a dairy food. The Catholic dietary restriction on "meat" on Fridays also does not apply to the cooking and eating of fish.

The Latin word caro "meat" (also the root of ‘carnal’, referring to the ‘pleasures of the flesh’) is often a euphemism for sexual pleasure, effected from the function performed by fleshy organs. Thus ‘meat’ may refer to the human body in a sensual, or sexual, connotation. A meat market, in addition to simply denoting a market where meat is sold, also refers to a place or situation where humans are treated or viewed as commodities, especially a place known as one where a sexual partner may be found.

"Meat" may also be used to refer to humans humorously or indifferently. In military slang, "meat shield" refers to soldiers sent towards an enemy to draw fire away from another unit

Meat constituted a substantial proportion of even the earliest humans’ diet, paleontological evidence suggests. Early hunter-gatherers depended on the organized hunting of large animals such as bison and deer.

The domestication of animals, of which we have evidence dating back to the end of the last glacial period (c. 10,000 years BP), allowed the systematic production of meat and the breeding of animals with a view to improving meat production. The animals which are now the principal sources of meat were domesticated in conjunction with the development of early civilizations:

Sheep, originating from western Asia, were domesticated with the help of dogs prior to the establishment of settled agriculture, likely as early as the eighth millennium BC. Several breeds of sheep were established in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt by 3500–3000 BC. Presently, more than 200 sheep breeds exist.
Cattle were domesticated in Mesopotamia after settled agriculture was established about 5000 BC, and several breeds were established by 2500 BC. Modern domesticated cattle fall into the groups Bos taurus (European cattle) and Bos indicus (zebu), both descended from the now-extinct Aurochs. The breeding of beef cattle, cattle optimized for meat production as opposed to animals best suited for draught or dairy purposes, began in the middle of the 18th century.
Domestic pigs, which are descended from wild boars, are known to have existed about 2500 BC in modern-day Hungary and in Troy; earlier pottery from Jericho and Egypt depicts wild pigs. Pork sausages and hams were of great commercial importance in Greco-Roman times. Pigs continue to be bred intensively as they are being optimized to produce meat best suited for specific meat products.
Modern agriculture employs a number of techniques, such as progeny testing, to make animals evolve rapidly towards having the qualities desired by meat producers. For instance, in the wake of well-publicised health concerns associated with saturated fats in the 1980s, the fat content of UK beef, pork and lamb fell from 20–26 percent to 4–8 percent within a few decades, both due to selective breeding for leanness and changed methods of butchery.Methods of genetic engineering aimed at improving the meat production qualities of animals are now also becoming available.

Even though it is a very old industry, meat production continues to be shaped strongly by the rapidly evolving demands of customers. The trend towards selling meat in pre-packaged cuts has increased the demand for larger breeds of cattle, which are better suited to producing such cuts. Ever more animals not previously exploited for their meat are now being farmed, especially the more agile and mobile species, whose muscles tend to be developed b

Lt. Col. Thomas J. Makal Jr.

Lt. Col. Thomas J. Makal Jr.
July 10, 1943 – January 21, 2008

Lt. Col. Thomas Joseph Makal Jr. was born in Florence, Alabama, on July 10, 1943, and settled in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In 1961 he graduated from Dominican High School in Milwaukee. He was a distinguished graduate of the Reserve Officer Training Corps program at the University of Wisconsin and received a Bachelor of Arts degree in math and political science in 1965. Lt. Col. Makal was commissioned as a regular officer in the United States Air Force on June 7, 1965. He entered active duty as a second lieutenant on Aug. 1, 1965, at Keesler AFB, Mississippi, where he attended the Communications-Electronics Technical Training Course.

His first operational assignment was to the 1913th Communications Squadron at Langley AFB, Virginia. In a four-year tour there from 1966-69, he held several duties in communications operations and rose to serve as the Chief of Tactical Air Command Post Communications, where he was principally responsible for the flow of communications supporting Southeast Asian deployments. In that capacity, he completed a command voice alerting system that continued unchanged until he replaced it 23 years later while assigned again to Langley AFB.

Lt. Col. Makal was married to Marilyn Terese Obenberger of Fox Point, Wisconsin, on Sept. 17, 1970 at St. Eugene’s Catholic Church in Milwaukee. He attended the Air Force Institute of Technology (Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio) in 1970-71, receiving his Master of Science degree in logistics management with honors.

In 1970, Lt. Col. Makal served a combat tour with the 1964 Communications Group, Tan Son Nhut AB, Republic of Vietnam, where he performed theater-wide duties in navigational aids maintenance until appointed Executive Officer of the 11-squadron, 5,000-person organization.

Following this one-year tour, he flowed to Headquarters, Pacific Communications Area, then at Wheeler AFB, Hawaii, where he managed a number of maintenance functions as well as logistics support for residual U.S. equipment in Vietnam. While in Hawaii, Lt. Col. Makal and his wife welcomed the arrival of their twin daughters, Katherine Anne and Jennifer Lee, on Aug. 3, 1973.

From Hawaii, he moved to Headquarters, Air Force Communications Command, first at Richards-Gebaur AFB, Missouri, then at Scott AFB, Illinois. Assigned to the Deputy Chief of Staff, Logistics, he served as Assistant Director of Maintenance, Chief of Maintenance Management and Logistics Plans Officer. He was the author of the engineering and installation wartime prepositioning system, consolidated engineering and installation depots at Tinker AFB, and began the process of streamlining Air Force Manual 66-1 maintenance management philosophies to fit the needs of small communications squadrons.

Following AFCC, Lt. Col. Makal attended the Air Command and Staff College at Maxwell AFB, Alabama, in 1980 and was reassigned to the HQ USAF Deputy Chief of Staff, Research and Development at the Pentagon, where he was in charge of system acquisitions for air traffic control and navigation equipment from 1981-85. In that capacity, he incorporated the Global Positioning System (GPS) in to the Federal Radionavigation Plan, assisted NATO in incorporating GPS and the microwave landing system into its long-range architecture, replaced the Berlin Air Route Traffic Control radar and funded a number of Control and Landing Systems (TRACALS) improvement programs.

From the Pentagon, he assumed the assignment of Deputy Commander of the 1836th Engineering Installation Group (AFCC) at Lindsey Air Station, West Germany, in 1985 and remained there until 1989. There, he directed the installation and much of the engineering of the command, control and communications infrastructure for several ground-launched cruise missile (GLCM) bases in Europe. He was instrumental in extending the Digital European Backbone program across the continent and getting the engineering-installation community prepared for war.

Following his tour in Germany, Lt. Col. Makal was assigned once again to Langley AFB, Virginia, the location of his first tour. At HQ TAC/SC, he assumed the position of Chief, Interbase Systems Branch, Air Combat Command. Throughout this final tour, he provided combat-ready communications-computer systems support for TAC forces during peacetime contingencies and wartime deployment during Operation Desert Shield/Storm. He trained and equipped the installation group for war while directing the crash cruise missile installation effort during the first Gulf War.

Lt. Col. Makal retired from the Air Force on July 31, 1993, after 28 years of distinguished service. His military decorations include the Bronze Star with combat V, the Meritorious Service Medal with four Oak Leaf Clusters, the Air Force Commendation Medal, and the Republic of Vietnam’s Staff Service Medal (First Class).

Following his military service, Col. Makal was employed at BDM Engineering and TRW, now Northrop Grumman. He retired from

microwave link planning

microwave link planning

Microwave Radio Links: From Theory to Design (Wiley Series in Telecommunications and Signal Processing)
After a period when optical links appeared to become the solution to all transmission problems, the ongoing revolution in the telecommunications sector and the advances in technology have brought microwave links back to center stage.
* Detailed comparison of ITU (International Telecommunications Union) and North American frequency hierarchies, an important topic that has been inadequatly covered
* Contains end -of-chapter problem sets and a solutions manual Includes extensive discussion of error control codes